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Alignment is one of the key maintenance factors in getting the most wear and performance from your tires. In addition, wheel alignment provides safe, predictable vehicle control as well as smooth and comfortable ride - free of pulling or vibration. Today's modern suspensions require a precise four-wheel alignment that can only be achieved through a modern alignment system. This applies to both front and rear wheel drive vehicles.


Aligning a car or truck involves the adjustment of the vehicle's suspension - not the tires and wheels. The direction and the angles that the tires point in after the alignment is complete, however, are critically important. There are five factors involved in setting the alignment to specification: caster, camber, toe, thrust and ride height. The following brief discussion of each aspect will help you understand the process and spot potential problems.


Caster is the angle of the steering axis (the part of the suspension that supports the wheel and tire assembly). Viewed from the side of the vehicle, an imaginary line drawn between the centers of the upper and lower ball joints forms an angle with true vertical; this is defined as caster. The illustration below shows whether this angle is referred to as positive or negative. Caster is important to steering feel and high-speed stability.


Viewed from the front of the vehicle, camber describes the inward or outward tilt of the tire. The illustration below shows whether this tilt is referred to as positive or negative. The camber adjustment maximizes the tire-to-road contact and takes into account the changes of force when a vehicle_ is turning. Camber is the one adjustment that can be set according to driving habits. Generally, if you drive more aggressively when cornering, more negative camber can be set. If you drive on highways and do very little hard cornering, more positive camber can be set.


Viewed from above the vehicle, toe describes whether the fronts of the tires are closer (toe-in) or farther (toe-out) apart than the rears of the tires. The illustration to the right shows this relationship. Toe settings vary between front and rear wheel drive vehicles. In a front wheel drive vehicle, the front wheels try to pull toward each other when the vehicle is in motion, which requires a compensating toe-out setting. A rear wheel drive vehicle works just the opposite, necessitating a toe-in setting. Stated differently, toe is set to let the tires roll in parallel (at zero toe) when the vehicle is in motion.


Ride height is simply the distance between the vehicle's frame and the road. This is the reference point for all alignment measurements. Vehicle customizing very often will include raising or lowering the vehicle. Don't forget to have your vehicle aligned afterward. Also, this rule applies if you put a taller or shorter tire on your vehicle.

Misalignment Condition

Tire Wear Symptom

Incorrect Camber Setting

Premature smooth wear on either

inside or outside shoulder.

Incorrect Toe Setting

Feathered wear across tread;


tread block edges.

Incorrect Caster Setting

Excessive shoulder wear; tread


show "heel-toe" wear pattern.

Unequal Caster setting (either

right or

left side is out of specification)

Sharp pulling necessitates steering

compensation and feathered wear.

Unequal Toe setting (either right


left side is out of specification)

Sharp pulling necessitates steering

compensation and feathered wear.

Combination of two or more


are out of specification.

Irregular tread wear with


and smooth spots.


Very often a worn suspension part is the cause of an alignment problem. On older vehicles, worn springs can lower a vehicle's ride height, altering its geometry and creating misalignment (all alignment settings refer to ride height). Weak springs can also contribute to uneven or "cupped" tire wear. Another common problem is worn ball joints. The symptoms here are erratic handling, slow steering response and irregular tire wear. Finally, worn tie rods can allow the tire to wander left to right, effectively changing toe as the vehicle rolls down the road. Irregular feathering will develop on the tire tread when this is the problem. Again this is not an exhaustive listing, but if you stay alert to these common problems, it may help you schedule an early visit to your mechanic and save on tire wear. Want to know more about better tire wear? Try Balancing and Tire Rotation.